- 加尔各答大学 University of Calcutta
- 文章来源：加尔各答大学 发表时间：2006-11-27 16:38:00
- 关键字： 加尔各答大学 University of Calcutta
Throughout the first half of the nineteenth century the then British rulers of the country were coming to realize the need for establishing modern universities in India, partly in their own interests and partly as a result of the efforts of a small group of liberals within the ruling classes who genuinely wished to spread modern education among the Indian masses.
In 1845, the Council of Education which then consisted of F.Millett, James Alexander, C.C.Egerton, Rassomay Dutt, Prosunno Coomar Tagore and Dr. FJ.Mouat formulated a proposal for the establishment of a University of Calcutta. The University of Calcutta was to consist of a Chancellor, a Vice-Chancellor and Fellows. The Governor-General of India was to be the Chancellor and Visitor of the University. There would be four Faculties. The Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, and the members of the Faculties were to form a body politic and corporate to be known as the University of Calcutta.
In July 1854, the Court of Directors of the East India Company sent a 'despatch' to the Governor General of India in Council suggesting the establishment of the Universities of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. In pursuance of the despatch, the University of Calcutta was founded on January 24,1857 by the incorporation of an Act of the Legislative Council (Act No. II of 1857).
Sir James William CoIvile was appointed the first Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta. The Lieutenant Governors of Bengal and North-Western Provinces, the Chief Justice of Bengal, the Bishop of Calcutta and members of the Supreme Council of India, all for the time-being, were to be ex-officio Fellows of the University of Calcutta. Twenty-nine Ordinary Fellows were also nominated. The Governor-General-in-Council also laid down certain directions regarding the appointment of the Registrar of the University and the examiners for different examinations. The Senate was directed to promulgate the rules proposed by the Committee and approved by the Government and frame such others as might be considered necessary.
The University Act , Act No. II of 1857, was passed by the Legislative Council and received the Governor-General's assent on 24th January 1857. The University of Calcutta was brought into existence even before the Act received the formal assent of the Governor General. The first meeting of the Senate was held on 3rd January, 1857. The Vice-Chancellor and twenty-two Fellows were present. The Senate appointed Colnel W. Grappel, Professor of Jurisprudence, Presidency College as Registrar of the University for two years.
Though the first meeting of the Senate was held on 3 January, 1857, the University did not immediately come to have a habitation of her own. Towards the end of 1872, at a cost of Rs. 4,34,697, the Senate Hall came into being. It was formally entered by the Senate of the University on 12 March 1873, on the occasion of the Annual Convocation ceremony, led by the then Vice-Chancellor, E.C.Bailey and the Chancellor Lord Northbrook.
On 13 March, 1875, Vice-Chancellor Bailey remarked in his Convocation Address that time had arrived when the University itself might very properly, within its means, assume, to some extent, actual teaching of the highest character. It was only in 1917, however, that all post-graduate teaching in Calcutta was centralized under the direct and immediate control of the University itself.
Soon after the University had come into the possession of and settled down in its own habitat, an addition of Rs. 3500 from the surplus received of the University for the year 1873-74, was made to the Library Fund , the nucleus of which had already been formed by the donation of Rs.5000 by Joykissen Mookerjee of Uttarpara. From the closing balance of the financial year 1875-76, an addition of Rs. 1500 was made to the Library Fund. A valuable collection of the publications of the Early English Text Society was also received as gift during the year. Thus was laid the foundation of the Library, which has today grown into what may be called the University Library system consisting of a Central Library and Departmental Libraries in that different University Campuses.
The Hon'ble Justice Gooroodas Banerjee became the first Indian Vice-Chancellor of University of Calcutta in the year 1890. Sir Asutosh Mukherjee was the Vice-Chancellor for four consecutive two-year terms (1906-1914) and a fifth two-year term (1921-23). To this day Sir Asutosh remains the most illustrious Vice-Chancellor in the history of this University. It was during his tenure that the University reached a pinnacle of glory as an educational institution of the finest quality.
The decade of the 1930's is also significant in the history of the University. Syamaprasad Mukherjee who became Vice-Chancellor in August 1934, took up the helm of the vessel which his illustrious father Asutosh Mookerjee had launched on its historic voyage. The Central Library of the University was shifted from the Darbhanga Building to the newly built third floor of the Asutosh Building to accommodate the swelling number of books and readers. Within a few years the Calcutta University Press brought out a large number of books written by a galaxy distinguished authors on various branches of learning.
In 1934, a proposal was mooted to establish an art gallery and museum in connection with post-graduate studies in Ancient Indian History and Culture. It took shape and form in 1937 when the Asutosh Museum of Indian Art was opened in the Western Hall of the then Senate House. Today Asutosh Museum is one of the richest University museums in India.